The Alofi underwater barrens are created by large storms and maintained by a large variety of grazers.
Small black needle urchins inside their sockets waiting for the night to emerge when they graze their gardens.
Reef gleaning for sustenance is still widely practised. The coralline reef flats do not consist of corals but coralline algae, covered in a sum of brown-green slimy algae. Mysterious rock pools break the surface.
Where good soils are found, people strip the vegetation for cultivating taro crops. Here the fields are left fallow to recover.
Salt spray from incessant large swell has created a moon landscape of very sharp jagged rocks with salt resistant vegetation.