Fish Tree

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  • Class
  • Order
    • Family
      • [subfamily, sometines]
        • Genus – species, common name (local name). [more optional information]

    • Eptattetridae – hagfishes. hagfish.
    • Geotriidae – lampreys: lamprey
  • Selachiformes – sharks and dogfishes
    • Brachaeluridae – blindsharks: Long nasal barbels and both dorsal fins placed between beginning of ventral and anal fins. Usually black or dark brown.
    • Rhiniodontidae – whale sharks: whale shark
    • Cetorhinidae – basking sharks: basking shark,
    • Stegostomatidae – zebra sharks: Small nasal barbels, very long tail. Ridges along upper body. Juveniles have zebra-like black and white banding, becoming spotted in adults. Leopard shark
    • Ginglymostomidae – nurse sharks: grey nurse shark
    • Odontaspididae – sand tiger sharks: sand tiger shark,
    • Alopiidae – thresher sharks: thresher shark,
    • Heterodontidae – horn or bullhead sharks: Blunt head with crest above each eye. Identically shaped dorsal fins but second fin slightly smaller, each headed by a venomous spine. Small mouth positioned low and behind. Port Jackson shark,
    • Lamnidae – mackerel sharks: Porbeagle shark, mako shark, great white shark,
    • Hexanchidae – sixgill sharks: sixgill shark, broadsnouted sevengill shark, sharpsnouted sevengill shark, frill shark,
    • Hemiscylliidae – bamboo sharks & epaulette sharks:
    • Parascylliidae – collared catsharks: Slender shape, small head with nasal barbels and grove joinign nostrils to mouth. Mouth reaching no further than below eye. Ventral, dorsal and anal fins alternate in position along body.
    • Scyliorhinidae – catsharks: snout pointed, sometimes very. Mouth under head, below eyes. First dorsal fin behind ventral fin and 2nd dorsal just behind anal fin. In some species all fins placed over rear end of body. Carpet shark, Dawsons catshark, deepwater catshark
    • Squalidae – spiny dogfishes: prickly dogfish, grey spiny dogfish, shovelnose spiny sogfish, Plunkets shark, Owstons spiny dogfish, deepwater dogfish,
    • Triakidae – smooth-hounds: spotted smooth-hound, slender smooth-hound,
    • Orectolobidae – wobbegong sharks, carpet sharks: Long barbels on snout and head has many skin flaps. Body is flattened and mottled as in a carpet. Wobbegong
    • Carcharinidae – requiem sharks, whaler sharks:streamlined body, thickest under first dorsal fin. School shark, tiger shark, blue shark, bronze whaler shark,
        • Carcharhinus albimarginatus, silvertip shark
        • Carcharhinus galapagensis, Galapagos shark
        • Carcharhinus melanopterus, blacktip reef shark
        • Triaenodon obesus, white-tip reef shark (mago paala – mago).
    • Sphyrnidae – hammerhead sharks: hammerhead shark,
    • Pristidae – sawfishes:
    • Squatinidae – angel sharks: body flattened, long fins but lacking anal fin. Superficially resembling rays except that the fins are not attached to the head.
    • Rhinobatidae – shovelnose rays: thick and elongated body and snout, head depressed and breastfins small and part of it.
    • Rhynchobatidae – sharkfin guitarfishes: very much like shovelnose rays but rear end more shark like.
  • Rajiformes – skates and rays
    • Torpedinidae – electric rays, torpedo rays: round, thick, flabby body. Head often blunt with kidney-shaped electric organs sideways. Tail with one or two dorsal fins. Colour from sandy grey to almost black. Electric ray
    • Narkidae – blind electric rays: blind electric ray
    • Rajidae – true skates: rough skate, smooth skate, Richardsons deepsea skate, deepsea skate, prickly deepsea skate, long-tailed skate
    • Dasyatidae – stingrays: short-tailed stingray, long-tailed stingray
    • Urolophidae – stingarees: Disc greatly flattened and usually rounded. Tail with two venomous spines and mall tailfin. Eyes raised with large spiracles right behind.
    • Rhinopteridae – cownose rays:
    • Myliobatididae – eagle rays: angular disc with whiplike tail. Head only slightly raised and eyes viewing sideways. eagle ray
    • Mobulidae – manta rays, devil rays: manta ray
    • Callorhynchidae – elephant fishes: sharklike body and fins but fleshy proboscis on snout. Single pair of gill slits, lacking a spiracle. elephant fish
    • Chimaeridae – ghost sharks: dark ghost shark, pale ghost shark
    • Rhinochimaeridae – long-nosed chimaeras: long-nosed chimaera
  • Anguilliformes – Eels
    • Anguillidae – freshwater eels: longfinned eel, shortfinned eel
    • Muraenidae – moray eels:thick skinned round body, flattened towards the end. Single median fin beginning behind and above the small gill opening, all the way around the tail to the anus. Mouth often with large long jaws.
        • Rhinomuraena quaesita, ribbon eel. A small blue moray eel with yellow jaws and dorsal fin. It has fan-shaped nostrils. Often found in pairs burrowed in the sand. Very shy. Males can change into females who are lighter blue with yellow backs. Juveniles are jet black with a yellow dorsal fin and sideways compressed.
        • Echidna nebulosa, clouded moray, snowflake moray. White snout and flowered body. Lives in shallow reefs and rockpools, hunting for crabs. 70cm. Very shy and fast.
        • Gymnothorax javanicus: giant moray. Brown-yellow with irregular spots. Black blotch on gill opening. Large and fat, to 240cm, 40kg. The one encountered in Niue was about 5m and perhaps 200kg.
        • Gymnothorax meleagris, white-mouth moray. Dark brown with numerous small round spots. Inside of mouth and tail tip white. 120cm.
        • Gymnothorax rueppellii, yellowhead banded moray. Body banded white/grey through dorsal fin. Head yellowish. Small solitary moray to 80cm. In the photo about to pounce on a small fish at night. Fully exposed.
        • Siderea picta, peppered moray. Pale to white with small brown to black spots. Lives in shallow water, rock pools and preys on crabs. Large 100cm.
        • Siderea thyrsoidea, white-eyed moray. Small moray (65cm) with distinctive large white eyes, light body colour with faint mottling and light snout. Lives in shallow water and rockpools.
        • Enchelycore schismatorhynchus, bentjaw moray. Light tan to grey with white margin on fins. Jaws with many daggerlike teeth. Nocturnal. Medium sized to 120cm.
    • Nemichthydiae – snipe eels:
    • Synaphobranchidae – cut-throat eels:
    • Ophichthidae – snake eels:long tubular bodies with pointed snout. snake eel, longfinned worm eel.
        • Myrichthys maculosus, spotted snake eel. yelllowish with dark spots. Overhanging jaws and long tubular nostrils. Solitary, mostly nocturnal. 2, 3, [HF]
    • Congridae – conger eels: common conger, northern conger, silver conger, umbrella conger, swollenhead conger, hairy conger, garden eel
    • Heterocongridae – garden eels: very long and thin eels standing upright out of their sandy burrows. Very shy.
  • Clupeiformes – herrings, sardines, sprats.silvery fishes with extendable mouths and fine gill rakers, capable of catching plant plankton.
    • Clupeidae – herrings, pilchards, sardines:silvery fishes with weakly attached scales. A single centrally placed dorsal fin, large extensible jaws with tiny teeth and numerous elongated gill rakers. Fins are short at the base and entirely soft-rayed. sprat, pilchard
        • Sardine (satini)
    • Engraulididae – anchovies: elongate silvery body with blunt protruding snout and weakly attached scales and soft-rayed fins. Anchovy,
  • Siluriformes – catfishes
    • Plotosidae – eeltail catfishes: elongate tapering bodies and barbels around mouth.
  • Gonorynchiformes –
    • Gonorynchidae – sand fishes: sand fish
  • Cypriniformes – carps
    • Cyprinidae – carps: goldfish, grass carp, silver carp, rudd, tench
  • Salmoniformes – salmon, trout
    • Argentinidae – silversides: silverside
    • Galaxiidae – whitebait: giant kokopu, koaro, dwarf kokopu, banded kokopu, dwarf inanga, inanga, alpine kokopu, shortjawed kokopu, longjawed kokopu, river kokopu, brown mudfish, canterbury mudfish, black mudfish
    • Salmonidae – salmon and trout: sockeye salmon, quinnat salmon, rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, brook char, mackinaw
  • Stomiiformes –
  • Aulopiformes –
    • Aulopidae – sergeant bakers: salmon-like with large head and jaws with several rows of fine teeth. Eyes above end of mouth. Fins soft-rayed.
    • Synodontidae – lizardfishes: torped-shaped bodies with exceptionally large mouth and eyes placed above it. Fins short-based and soft-rayed. A tiny fatty fin above the anal fin. Lizardfish, deepsea lizardfish
    • Harpadontidae – grinners/sauries:similar to lizardfish but with numerous rows of needle teeth. Ventral fin with a feeble spine and 8 rays.
        • Saurida nebulosa, blotched grinner. As S. gracilis but has shorter breastfins and is smaller to 20cm. Photo2.
        • Saurida gracilis, slender grinner. Medium sized to 28cm with 3 dark or diffused bars on rear of body, line pattern on lips and visible teeth when mouth is closed. Solitary on sand or silt in calm water.
    • Paralepipidae – barracudinas:
  • Myctophiformes – lanternfishes
    • Myctophidae – lanternfishes:
  • Ophidiiformes – lings
    • Ophidiidae – lings:
  • Gadiformes – cods
    • Moridae – morid cods, beardies: elongated tapering body with tiny cycloid scales, a large head with chin barbels and hipfins placed forward as feelerlike filaments. ahuru, red cod, northern bastard red cod, southern bastard red cod, rock cod,
    • Gadidae – true cods: southern blue whiting, rockling,
    • Merluciidae – hakes: hake, hoki,
  • Lophiiformes – anglerfishes
    • Antennariidae – anglerfishes: modified first dorsal fin with lure. 3rd dorsal spine greatly enlarged.
  • Gobiesociformes – clingfishes
    • Gobiesocidae – clingfishes: urchin clingfish, orange clingfish, striped clingfish, lumpfish
  • Beloniformes/ Cyprinodontiformes – halfbeaks
    • Exocoetidae – flying fishes:flying fish
        • Cypselurus sp., flying fish (mahave, ika lele- ika)
        • Cheilopogon sp., flying fish (mahave, ika lele- ika)
    • Hemiramphidae – halfbeaks, garfishes: long, thin silvery fishes with greatly extended lower jaw. Ventral fins placed far back. piper, garfish.
    • Belonidae – needlefishes, longtoms:as halfbeaks but with very long equal-sized jaws with numerous needle teeth. Needle fish, long tom, crocodilefish
        • Tylosurus crocodilus, crocodile needle fish or longtom (aku pa, aku tagata). Silvery, extrmely slender with elongate upper and lower jaws. Forked tail with larger lower lobe.
        • Strongylura incisa, reef needlefish. Practically identical to crocodile needle fish but with wavy tail margin.
    • Atherinidae – hardyheads: schooling fish with slender body and broad silvery lateral band. Large eyes, moderate scales.
    • Isonidae – surf sardines: schooling fish with greatly compressed body and keel-like abdomen. Silvery and highly reflective.
    • ??Scomberesocidae – silver sauries: saury
  • Lampriformes
    • Lampridae – opahs: moonfish,
    • Lophotidae – crested bandfishes: crested band fish
  • Beryciformes –
    • Anomalopidae – flashlightfishes:
    • Monocentrididae – pineapple fishes: prominent light organ on sides of lower jaw, used at night to locate prey. Yellow body with black markings resembling a pineapple.
    • Trachichthyidae – roughys, sandpaperfish:body compressed and deep. Scutes (scales with sharp ridges) placed on rear side of belly. Can make buzzing or clicking sounds. common roughy, slender roughy, orange roughy, silver roughy
        • Trachichthys steindachneri, pomfret (kokio – palu).
    • Bericidae – alfonsinos, nannygai, red snapper: predominantly red sideways compressed bodies with moderately large ctenoid scales. Deeply forked tailfin. Most school in great numbers. Golden snapper, alfonsino
    • Holocentridae – squirrelfishes:prominent, sometimes poisonous spine on lower corner of gill cover. squirrelfishes and soldierfishes
      • Holocentrinae – squirrelfishes:
        • Sargocentron cornutum, three-spot squirrelfish, (ika ta – ika). 7 alternating red and white stripes, white edge around eye, black spot on tail base. 18cm.
        • Sargocentron microstoma, fine-lined squirrelfish. Small 19cm fish with fine red and white lines. Black markings on front of first back fin. Long white margin on anal spine.
        • Sargocentron punctatissimum, peppered squirrelfish. 20cm. Pink back gradating to silver belly with fine spotting in silver stripes, dorsal fin with white base.
        • Sargocentron spiniferum, long-jawed sabre squirrelfish (ta gutuloa – ta). Large (45cm) with yellowish fins and long cheek spine below gill cover.
        • Neoniphon argenteus, clearfin sliver squirrel fish. A small (19cm) solitary fish with silver body and fine red lines. Dorsal fin clear with white tips. Soft fins not yellow.
        • Neoniphon sammara, spotfin silver squirrelfish. A solitary fish with silver body and fine red lines. Soft fins red in front, faint yellow behind. Dorsal fin with white tips and black spot. Large 32cm.
      • Myripristinae – soldierfishes:as squirrelfish but with smaller gill cover spine and having blunter heads.
        • Myripristis berndti, bigscale soldierfish.
        • Myripristis kuntee, epaulette soldierfish 20cm, with dark band behind eye and white first rays.
        • Myripristis pralinia, scarlet soldierfish.20cm. Shading gradually from red back to white belly. Small dark margin behind upper gill cover. White-tipped fins.
        • Myripristis violacea, purple soldierfish (selekihi, ta matapula). 20cm. silvery scales with purple margins. Light red band behind gill cover.
        • Myripristis vittata, white-tipped soldierfish. 20cm. Orange with white dorsal fin tips and first rays of all other fins.
  • Zeiformes – dories
    • Zeidae – dories: very sideways compressed, round bodies with extendable oblique mouth. john dory, mirror dory, capro dory, silver dory
    • Oreosomatidae – oreo dories: smooth oreo, spiky oreo, warty oreo
  • Gasterosteiformes – sea moths
    • Pegasidae – sea moths:
  • Syngnathiformes – flutemouths and pipefishes
    • Aulostomidae – Trumpetfishes:long tubular or flattened body and long trumpetlike mouth. Dorsal fin has small separate spines, each followed by a triangular membrane, the soft part of which is large and situated near the tail.
        • Aulostomus chinensis, trumpetfish (haohao). Long, compressed body with long, trumpetlike snout and small mouth. Colour highly variable from yellow to brown and pale with dark tail saddle. Yellow tail with 2 black spots. Golden variety uncommon.
    • Fistulariidae – flutemouths:long tubular bodies with extremely long snout but small mouth. Soft-rayed fins.
        • Fistularia commersonii, smooth flutemouth, cornetfish. Long slender silvery tubular body with olive back. Long snout with small mouth. Tail fin with whip-like filament. Solitary or in small schools, to 150cm.
    • Centriscidae – shrimpfishes: in small schools, swimming nose down.
    • Pegasidae – sea moths: body encased in rigid plates and tail encircled with bony rings. Ventral fins reduced to pairs of slender structures for crawling. Breastfins wing like.
    • Solenostomidae – ghost pipefishes: head is pipefish like with a long tubular mouth but body is short and compressed, protected by bony plates. 2 separate backfins and large ins all round. Enlarged anal fin is opposite second dorsal.
    • Macrorhamphosidae – snipefishes: long-nosed snipefish, snipefish, banded bellowsfish, crested bellowsfish
    • Syngnathidae – pipefishes and seahorses:body protected by bony plates, arranged in rings. Long tubular snout with small toothless mouth. No ventral fins. anal and tailfins lacking.
      • Hippocampinae – sea horses: seahorse
      • Syngnathidae – pipefishes: pipefish, spiny sea dragon,
        • Corythoichthys flavofasciatus, network pipefish. Normally pale green or yellow with darker bands and fine stripes or network pattern. Small 18cm.
  • Scorpaeniformes – scorpionfishes and gurnards
    • Scorpaenidae – scorpion fishes:well camouflaged, no swim bladder. Spiny ridges onn head. scorpionfish, sea perch, firefish, lionfish, stonefish
        • Pterois volitans, common lionfish/ firefish. Young ones are dark black to brown. Inhabits shady areas.  Young lionfish.
        • Pterois radiata, white-lined lionfish, clearfin lionfish. 24cm. ~6 brown bands with white outlines on a brick-orange body. Long filamentous white pectorals with small transparent connecting tissues near its base.
        • Scorpaenopsis diabolus, devil scorpionfish. Pronounced hump on back, highly variable in colour, generally drab shades blending with surroundings. Lives on rubble or weed bottom of coastal, lagoon and seaward reefs. closeup.
        • Scorpaenopsis macrochir, flasher scorpionfish. Similar to devil scorpionfish but much smaller (15cm). Shorter snout and less pronounced hump on back. Colour variable. Lives on rubble, weed and rocks.
        • Synanceia verrucosa, reef stonefish (nofu). Globular shape appears as algae-covered stone with prominent warts and skin flaps. Eyes far apart with deep pit in between. Venomous fin spines are deadly.
    • Pataecidae – prowfishes: compressed bodies, no swimbladder, long dorsal fin which begins over the fromt of the ehad. Ventral fins absent. Tough skin instead of scales.
    • Gnathaanacanthidae – red velvetfishes: no swimbladder, long round fins all around. Well developed ventral fins with membrane attached to abdomen. High dorsal fin with deep notch. skin covered with fleshy projections, giving a velvety feel in adults.
    • Tetrarogidae – waspfishes:
    • Gongiopodidae – pigfishes: southern pigfish,
    • Triglidae – gurnards: red gurnard, spotted gurnard, scaly gurnard
    • Dactylopteridae – flying gurnards: like gurnards but with exceptionally long breastfins.
    • Platycephalidae – flatheads: head greatly depressed with bony ridges and large pungent spines. Large breast fins and ventral fins immediately underneath.
    • Cottidae – sculpins:
  • Perciformes –
    • Percichthyidae – temperate basses: hapuku, bass,
    • Serranidae – groupers and sea perches:Most have tiny scales and an indistinct lateral line. All have 24 vertebrae and body outline rounded including fins.
      • Serraninae – groupers & cods:rockcods, groupers
        • Cephalopholis argus, peacock grouper (loi). Brown-green with blue-purple fins and blue-ringed spots. 55cm.
        • Cephalopholis aurantia, golden grouper (pelepele)
        • Cephalopholis igarasiensis, grouper (palu kulukulu – palu)
        • Cephalopholis miniata, coral grouper (malau pokoahu). Yellow to orange from front to back, with blue dots.
        • Cephalopholis sonnerati, tomato grouper (kaupatuo). Orange-red with dense network of red spots on head and fainter spots on body. Fins slightly blue-fringed.
        • Cephalopholis spiloparaea, strawberry grouper. Small (22cm) solitary grouper with even reddish orange colour and some mottling or lighter spots. Blue to pale outline on tail.
        • Cephalopholis urodeta, flagtail grouper (mataele). Orange with white diagonal lines across tail.
        • Epinephelus fasciatus, black tipped grouper (talaao)
        • Epinephelus hexagonatus, hexagon grouper, spotted rock cod (gatala). Small 26cm grouper with whitish undercolour, closely packed in hexagonal orange to red spots. On its back these spots merge into 5-7 blotches. Solitary.
        • Epinephelus merra, honeycomb rockcod (gatala).
        • Epinephelus morrhua, snakeskin cod (palu pusi).
        • Epinephelus puerra, rock cod (gutuvai)
        • Epinephelus retouti, grouper (gutukafu)
        • Epinehelus tauvina, greasy grouper (gatala). Similar to honeycomb grouper but with vertical blotches.
        • Plectropomus laevis, blacksaddle coralgrouper. Whitish with 4 black saddles and black band above eye. Fins yellow. Can be grey-speckled with white belly.
        • Plectropomus leopardus, coral trout (kiega). Red with small white spots.
        • Variola albimarginata, white-edged lyretail, lunar-tailed cod (malau).
      • Anthiinae – basslets & seaperches:very colourful small fish, very difficult to photograph
        • Pseudanthias olivaceus, olive anthias, olive to dark grey with yellow spots on scales of lower body or bands. Yellow stripe behind eye.
        • Pseudanthias pascalus, purple queen.
      • Grammistinae – soapfishes:gold ribbon groper
        • Grammistes sexlineatus, sixlined soapfish, sixlined perch. 27cm. Black with thin yellow lines on sides. Skin mucus poisonous.
    • Centropomidae – barramundi: concave snout and head with large mouth. Long-bodied. Dorsal fin deeply notched. Large scales.
    • Pseudochromidae – dottybacks: slender and colourful fishes. body elongated, head long and eyes large with elongated pupil.
    • Plesiopidae – longfins, blue devils: like pseudochromidae, with larger fins and iridescent lines or blue spots. Blue devils.
    • Priacanthidae – bigeyes:very large eyes and mouth. Compressed, elongated body. Ventral fins connected to body by a membrane.
        • Heteropriacanthus cruentatus, blotched bigeye, glasseye (kaene).  Variable red to silver with variable bars. Fins lightly spotted or mottled. Tail slightly rounded. Solitary to 32cm.
    • Acanthoclinidae – rockfishes, spiny basslets: as Pseudochromidae with more dorsal & anal fin spines but ventral fins with only one or two rays. rockfish
    • Glaucosomatidae, pearl perches: Deep-bodied and silvery as adults, often with lines as juveniles. Long filaments sometimes trailing from median fins.
    • Terapontidae – trumpeters and grunters: Small ctenoid scales, extended into sheaths along dorsal and anal fin bases. A prominent spine on opercle and strong spines in fins. Generally marked with longitudinal stripes or spots.
    • Apogonidae – cardinalfishes:small elongate live-bearing fishes with separate angular backfins, torpedo body shape, large mouth and eyes. Two spines in anal fins.
        • Apogon cookii, Cook’s cardinalfish. 5 alternating white and black bands, with two white stripes through eyes, but no tail spot. Lives in very shallow water and rock pools. 10cm.
        • Apogon fraenatus, bridled cardinal fish (gu)
        • Apogon menesemus, cardinal fish (palu gu – palu)
        • Apogon kallopterus, iridescent cardinal fish (ulumula). Pale pinkish brown with dark side stripe and yellow first dorsal. [HF]
        • Apogon taeniophorus, white lined reef-flat cardinalfish. Alternating white and black stripes but not on tail. Looks like blackstripe cardinalfish A. nigrofasciatus, but lives in shallow reef flats.
        • Cheilodipterus macrodon, tiger cardinalfish.
        • Unidentified cardinal fishes: cardinal1 (tiger?), purple cardinal,
    • Dinolestidae – longfin pikes: long cylindrical bodyand pointed head. LMany soft rays in dorsal & anal fins and one spine in anal fin.
    • Malacanthidae – tilefishes and blanquillos: blenny-like fishes swimming in the open
    • Pomatomidae – tailors: body streamlined with smooth scales and a large tail. Jaws with small compressed sharp teeth in single rows.
    • Rachycentridae – cobias: a unique shape, snout bent upward.
    • Labracoglossidae – knifefishes: blue knifefish, grey knifefish
    • Echeneidae – remoras: have a unique sucker on their heads. Body long and slender. shark sucker, slender remora, grey marlinsucker, hardfin marlinsucker
    • Carangidae –  jacks, trevallies, scads and darts: trevally (tavali), horse mackerel, kingfish, samsonfish, pilotfish
        • Caranx ignobilis, great trevally (ulua).
        • Caranx lugubris, black trevally (tafauli).
        • Caranx melampygus: bluefin trevally (aheu). Silvery iridescent blue to green with dense spotting on upper part of body. Blue fins. solitary or in small schools. Large 100cm. Photo2.
        • Caranx sexfasciatus: bigeye trevally (ulua). Silver bodies but males can turn black when courting. Small black spot on upper gill cover. White tips on anal and back fin. Can form large schools. Large to 100cm.
        • Gnathanodon speciosus, golden trevally (gutu uli)
        • Trachinotus baillonii, small-spotted dart, black-spotted swallowtail (lai). Silvery flat body with long swallow tail and bakc&anal fins long and pointed like swallow tails. Small black spots along sideline.
        • Atule mate, yellowtail scad (atule)
        • Scomberoides lyson, queenfish leatherskin, double-spotted queenfish (lai loa).
        • Selar crumenopthalmus, bigeye scad (atule).
        • Seriola dumerili, amberjack (palu tikava). A long, silvery kingfish.
        • Seriola rivoliana, almaco jack (palu tikava – palu). Trevally with dark strip through eye.
        • Elegatus bipinnulatus, rainbow runner (samani). Silver olive-blue with blue long stripes.
        • Decapterus macrosoma, round scad (ulihega)
    • Coryphaenidae – dolphinfishes:dolphinfish
        • Coryphaena hippurus, dolphinfish, mahimahi (tolofine, palelafa).
    • Bramidae – pomfrets: rays bream,
    • Arripidae – kahawais: kahawai,
    • Caesionidae – fusiliers:bodies oval, compressed and streamlined with a forked tail and small mouth.
        • Pterocaesio tile, blue streak fusilier fish (ulihega iua – ulihego)
    • Sciaenidae – jewfishes: moderately elongate bodies, somewhat compressed and small scales. Backfin is deeply notched and has a long soft section. Short anal fin base.
    • Leiognathidae – ponyfishes: Deep compressed bodies with slimy skin, shiny sides and tiny scales. Mouth very extendable. A series of small spines along the dorsal and anal fin bases.
    • Gerreidae – silverbellies, mojarras: similar to ponyfishes in looks and behaviour but distinctly scaled.
    • Kuhliidae – flagtails:
        • Kuhlia mugil, barred flagtail. small silver fish with horizontally banded tail, living in shallow reefs from plankton.
    • Haemulidae – sweetlips:Heavy bodies & large lips. Most go through elaborate colour changes in their life and the young are often plain with small spots or lines and large tails.
        • Plectorhinchus picus, dotted sweetlips. Whitish with profuse small black dots covering head, body and fins. Black margin on gill cover. Juvenile.[HF]
    • Lethrinidae – emperors – coral breams:distinctly scaled and fins large with a spinous section. Sloping heads & tapered bodies.
        • Monotaxis grandoculis, humpnose bigeye bream, large-eyed bream (fotuo). Black to grey, silver or brown with light belly. Often with yellow tinge on head. Black spot on base of breastfin. Large black eye.
    • Nemipteridae – spinecheeks and whiptails: spinecheeks have a prominent spine below the eye.
    • Emmelychthyidae – bonnetmouths: red bait, ruby fish
    • Sparidae – seabreams: oval shaped and shiny bodies with moderate scales. Mouth placed low and jaws have conical teeth and anterior canines. snapper,
    • Lutjanidae – true snappers, coral snappers:perch-like with an elongated scaly body and a single dorsal fin with hard section. Identification is easiest by their colours although the young may differ.
        • Lutjanus bohar, red snapper (fagamea) or twinspot snapper. Juvenile mimicking Chromis iomelas.
        • Lutjanus kasmira, blue-lined snapper (fouigo)
        • Lutjanus monostigma, one-spot snapper (hiku ila – hiku)
        • Aphareus furca, smalltooth jobfish (palu po – palu). Slender, blue-grey, large mouth, forked tail, long pectoral fins. Solitary or in small groups.
        • Aphareus rutilens, red jobfish (palu gu).
        • Aprion virescens, green jobfish (palu monega, utu)
        • Macolor macularis, midnight snapper. Olive-grey with golden spot on each scale, fading to gold belly. Golden iris. Blue line and markings on head.
        • Paracaesio auricilla, goldflag jobfish (hahave – palu)
        • Paracaesio kusakarii, Kusakar’s snapper (kulapu)
        • Paracaesio multidens, bold banded job fish (palu hai – palu)
        • Etelis carbunculus, red snapper (palu fagamea).
        • Etelis coruscans, longtail snapper (pakeo)
        • Pristipomoidus zonatus, flower snapper (palu heahea)
    • Mullidae – goatfishes:elongate tapering body with medium scales and well separated dorsal fins. Mouth has barbels on chin. Tailfin deeply forked. Most can change colour quickly. goatfish, red mullet,
        • Parupeneus barberinus, dash-dot goatfish (hafulu)
        • Parupeneus bifasciatus, double-bar goatfish (talakave). A medium sized (35cm) goatfish, white to purple with orange spots on scales, black patch around the eyes and two dark saddles. They can change colour rapidly.
        • Parupeneus ciliatus, Whitelined or Cardinal Goatfish. Light red or purplish to yellowish. 2 horizontal white bands extend from snout to halfway. Often with darkish saddle on tail base. Solitary.
        • Parupeneus multifasciatus, banded goatfish (talakave), manybar goatfish. Light grey to brownish or purplish with about 6 black and white bands on body. Black smudge behind eye. Solitary. 2,
        • Mulloidichthys vanicolensis, yellowfin goatfish (hafulu). Schooling.
        • Mulloidichthys auriflamma, gold-lined goatfish
        • Mulloides flavolineatus, yellow stripe goatfish (kaloama motua – kaloama). Silvery white with light yellow stripes and black spot on side under back fin, which can fade rapidly. This fish reproduces so well in Niue that between December and March the sheltered side of the island dense schools of juveniles can be found in shallow water and rock pools.
    • Pempherididae – bullseyes:rounded head, straight backs and rounded bellies, very sideways compressed. Large eyes above oblique mouth. Mostly nocturnal. bigeye
        • Pempheris oualensis, copper sweeper, copper bigeye. 22cm. Copper brown, leading edge and tip of first dorsal fin blackish, black spot on pectoral fin base. Solitary or in pairs under ledges and in caves.
    • Monodactylidae – silver batfishes: silvery fishes with deep bodies and small deciduous scales.
    • Scorpididae – sweeps: highly compressed oval bodies, silvery blue with reduced fin spines. Rear fins are slightly elongated and tailfin is forked. Blue maomao, sweep,
    • Kyphosidae – drummers:same shape as sweep but larger. Teeth fused in a single row. drummer, parore, bluefish,
        • Kyphosus vaigiensis, brassy drummer. Small school.
        • Kyphosus cinerascens, topsail drummer (nue). Like brassy drummer but with high second dorsal fin.
    • Girellidae – blackfishes: resemble drummers but bodies more compressed.
    • Microcanthidae – stripeys and mado: oblong compressed bodies with strong spines in dorsal, anal and ventral fins. Teeth are close-set and brush-like. Mado.
    • Pentacerotidae – Boarfishes: head large and encased in bony plates, concave as a pig’s head. Body deep elongate, very compressed and tall vertical fins. long-finned boarfish, giant boarfish, striped boarfish,
    • Ephippidae – batfishes:bodies disc shaped with tall fins. Juveniles have extremely tall fins above and below the body, resembling leaves rather than fish.
    • Scatophagidae – scats:
    • Chaetodontidae – butterfly fishes, bannerfishes: very deep compressed bodies and pointed snouts. Teeth typically brush-like, slendear and close-set with recurving tips. Fin spines large and solid. Most species very colourful. Chaetos=bristle; dont=tooth.
        • Chaetodon auriga, threadfin butterflyfish. 23cm. White body with yellow rear and chevron pattern on side. Black eye saddle. Yellow thread trailing from dorsal fin.
        • Chaetodon citrinellus, speckled citron butterflyfish [HF] Pale yellow to whitish with many rows of faint bluish spots, black eye stripe and thin black edge on anal fin.
        • Chaetodon ephippium, saddled butterflyfish. 23cm. Blue-grey with blue lines on lower body. Large white-bordered black patch on upper rear. Orange-yellow from snout over belly fins. Red margin on tail base and dorsal fin rear. Yellow thread trailing from dorsal fin. [HF]
        • Chaetodon flavirostris, black yellowsnouted butterflyfish. Dark with yellow rim around rear edge. Yellow snout. Large adults (to20cm) develop hump on forehead. Usually in pairs.
        • Chaetodon lunula, raccoon butterflyfish. 21cm. Yellow-orange with dusky back and thin dark diagonal bands. Black eyeband with white eyepatch behind and 3 yellow lines over dark skin to middle of dorsal fin. In pairs or aggregations. [HF]
        • Chaetodon mertensii, yellowblack butterflyfish. 12cm. White with chevron markings. Broad yellow-orange band over rear body and tail. Black eyestripe. Solitary or in pairs. [HF]
        • Chaetodon ornatissimus, ornate butterflyfish. 18cm. Bluish white with 7 orange bands. Yellow-black edge all around. In pairs. [HF]
        • Chaetodon punctatofasciatus, spot-banded butterflyfish
        • Chaetodon pelewensis, dot & dash butterflyfish. Small 12cm fish with yellow body and diagonal lines of dots that become bands on upper body. Orange tail stock. Black spot on nape.
        • Chaetodon quadrimaculatus, fourspot butterflyfish. Yellow-orange body, darkening to black above. Two white spots on back. Small 16cm and usually in pairs, feeding on Pocillopora corals.
        • Chaetodon reticulatus, reticulated butterflyfish. 16cm. Scales grey with black edges on a whitish body fading to dark belly. Black head band and yellow margin over eyes and on fins. [HF]
        • Chaetodon ulietensis, Pacific double-saddle butterflyfish. 15cm. White body with bright yellow rear. Faint saddles on back. Fine waving vertical stripes. Black eyeband. [HF]
        • Chaetodon unimaculatus, one-spot or tear-drop butterflyfish (tifitifi tua ila – tifitifi). 20cm. White with bright yellow dorsal and anal fins. Black tear-shaped spot on middle back. Black band front and rear. [HF]
        • Forcipiger flavissimus, long-nose butterflyfish. 22cm. Yellow with black upper head and white below. Elongate snout but shorter than big longnose butterflyfish. Spot on anal fin below tail base. Solitary or in pairs.
        • Forcipiger longirostris, very-longnose butterflyfish. 22cm. Yellow with black upper head and white below. Extremely elongate snout. Black spots on breast. Spot on anal fin below tail base. Solitary or in pairs.
        • Heniochus chrysostomus, pennant bannerfish. 18cm. White with black band on head, mid body and rear. Yellow upper snout. Tallest dorsal spine like a feather. Solitary or in pairs.
    • Pomacanthidae – angelfishes:body more elongate than butterflyfishes but also colourful. Prominent spine on lower corner of operculum.
        • Centropyge flavissimus, lemonpeel angelfish [HF]. 14cm. Bright yellow with blue cheek spine, blue eye margins and blue margin on gill cover.
        • Centropyge heraldi, Herald’s angelfish or yellow pygmy angelfish.
        • Centropyge loricula, flame angelfish. 10cm. Brilliant red to red-orange with about 5 black bars. Blue markings on rear edge of dorsal and anal fins. Solitary or in small groups. [HF]
        • Pomacanthus imperator, emperor angelfish. 38cm. Striking pattern of blue, black and yellow with dark eye band. Their young look entirely different: blue bodies with white lines and rings. Makes a loud drumming sound when alarmed.
    • Pomacentridae – damselfishes, humbugs, anemonefishes & scalyfins:deep rounded compressed bodies with rounded rear fins and forked tails. Small mouths. demoiselle, sea swallow, anemone fish, sergeant-major,
        • Abudefduf vaigiensis, sergeant major (papaao moana – papaao)
        • Abudefduf sordidus, blackspot sergeant-major fish. (papaao moana – papaao). Greyish with 5-6 darker bands and small black saddle on tail stock. Small 19cm, lives in shallow water and rock pools. Mature form?,
        • Abudefduf septemfasciatus, seven-banded sergant-major. (papaao moana – papaao)
        • Abudefduf sexfasciatus, scissortail sergeant.
        • Chrysiptera taupou, south seas devil. A most spectacular metallic blue-yellow rockpool demoiselle
        • Dascyllus reticulatus: Indian blue-lipped humbug. Pale brown body and darker head with black lined scaled, dark fins and blue lips & ventral fin. Often found in pairs. Territorial.
        • Dascyllus trimaculatus, threespot dascyllus. Grey with dark scale edges. Fins dark except rear dorsal. 14cm. In groups. Juvenile has 3 spots: one on its forehead and two each side onits back.[HF]
        • Unidentified pomacentrids: scalyfin1,
        • Amphiprion clarki, Clark’s Anemonefish. Black to entirely orange with 2 white-bluish bars. Tail white or yellow with abrupt boundary.
        • Chromis iomelas, Pacific Half-and-half Chromis. 7cm. Dark brown to black head and forebody, white rear body and tail. Solitary or in groups.
        • Chromis margaretifer, bicolor chromis.
    • Aplodactylidae – marblefishes, sea carps: Elongate tapering body, dull coloured without swim bladder. Deeply notched backfin. marblefish, notch-head marblefish
    • Chironemidae – kelpfishes: closely related to hawkfishes. Tapering body with invisible smalle scales and no swimbladder. Breastfin with separate fin rays for holding on to things. Front belly rubbery. hiwihiwi kelpfish
    • Cirrhitidae – hawkfishes:heavy bodies, large lips, dorsal fin tips tufted/feathered.
        • Cirrhitus pinnulatus, marbled hawk fish, sturdy hawkfish (ulutuki piu – ulutuki). One of the larger hawkfishes (28cm). Blotchy brown with white spots. Solitary in shallow water.
        • Cirrhitus fasciatus, hawkfish (ulutuki legalega – ulutuki)
        • Paracirrhites arcatus, ring-eyed hawkfish (manini ulutuki manini – lulutuki). Small red fish, resembling a small grouper. Long white stripe over lateral line from halfway to tail. Yellow-ringed pupil and oval yellow/blue ring behind eye. Hides in Acropora corals.
        • Paracirrhites forsteri, blacksided or freckled hawkfish (ulutuki ago – ulutuki) [HF]
        • Paracirrhites hemistictus, halfspotted hawkfish. 28cm. Grey head withpale yellow to grey body and white side line or white side spot. Numerous dark dots on upper body. [HF]
    • Ephippidae – old wifes: long pelvic fins like boarfish, and long anal fins. Backfin split with some long fin rays. Small breastfins.
    • Cheilodactylidae – morwongs: thick, rubbery lips. Body like boarfish with some long backfin rays. Breastfin may have elongated rays. Tailfin forked. Distinct coloration. porae, tarakihi, red moki, painted moki, magpie morwong, red morwong
    • Latrididae – trumpeters: similar to morwongs but more streamlined, with thick lips, deeply notched back fin and small rounded breastfins. Head concave as in boarfishes. Small scales.blue moki, copper moki, common trumpeter, telescope fish,
    • Opisthognatidae – jawfishes: goby-like fishes with large jaws inhabiting sand burrows
    • Mugilidae – mullets:grey mullet, yellow-eyed mullet
        • Mugil cephalus, ocean mullet (fuafua, kanahe). Prefers shallow sheltered waters in lagoons.
        • Liza vaigiensis, diamond-scale mullet (kanahe).
        • Valamugil engeli, engel’s mullet, dwarf mullet (fuafua, kanahe). Schooling in shallow protected areas of sand, algae and mud in lagoons and around shallow reef flats.
        • Crenimugil crenilabis, fringelip mullet (fuafua, kanahe). Silver with narrow grey horizontal stripes, black spot at upper breastfin base, dusky rear margin of tail fin.
        • Neomyxus leuciscus, yellow spot mullet, acute-jawed mullet [HF]. Silvery with yellow spot on the base of the pectoral fin. Forms schools.
    • Polynemidae – threadfins:elongate silver with fin arrangement as mullets but threads hanging from breastfin base.
        • Polydactilus sexfilis, sixfeeler threadfin (ikata – ika). Slender like mullet, with 6 threads at breastfin base.
        • Polydactylus plebius, northern threadfin, striped salmon (ikatea – ika). Thicker than mullet, with thin yellow stripes and five threads from base of each breastfin.
    • Labridae – wrasses:sideways compressed, elongate fish swimming with breast fins. Many species, mostly invertebrate eaters.
        • Coris aygula, clown coris [HF]. A light grey band separates its speckled light grey head from its dark grey rear body. White fin margins. Initial Phase, juvenile.
        • Coris gaimard, yellowtail coris. [HF] 38cm. Variable from shades of blue to green and red, with a yelow tail, bright yellow mid body bar, brilliant blue spots on rear body and tail base.
        • Cheilinus undulatus, humphead wrasse initial phase [HF].Green body with vertical streaks and a bump above its eyes. Can grow very large.
        • Novaculichthys taeniourus, rockmover wrasse. Rotten-leaf-shaped, swims like a whirling leaf.
        • Halichoeres hortulanus, checkerboard wrasse (intermediate phase) [HF]. Begins life as a black fish with two white bands, then as shown in this picture and finally with a red-green tattooed head, white saddle and a checkerboard rear half of its body.
        • Halichoeres margaritaceus, weedy surge wrasse. Body in shades of green with red scale spots forming blotches. Pink diagonal band and radial bands on cheek. Lives in shallow water, small to 13cm.
        • Halichoeres hortulanus, checkerboard wrasse (meai paku kope – meai). Highly varied in colour throughout its life cycle. Blueish white to green with blue bar on each coarse scale. Head green with pink bands. Dorsal fin with three yellow and one black patch. Tail yellowish to checkered blue. Juveniles banded with 3 black and 2 white bands. Small to 20cm.
        • Halichoeres trimaculatus, threespot wrasse. 27cm. [HF] Pale yellowish green with lavender vertical streak on most scales & lavender band on head with pink lines. Black spot on tail base and forebody. Juveniles are more pinkish all over and miss the forebody black spot. 2,
        • Gomphosus varius, bird wrasse (meaigutu loa – meai)
        • Labroides bicolor, bicolor cleaner wrasse.
        • Macropharyngodon meleagris, leopard wrasse
        • Novaculichthys taeniourus – Rockmover Wrasse. 27cm. juvenile.[HF] Pale grey/green head, body with light-dotted scales, light bar on  tail base, may have dark lines radiating from eyes. Found on rubble bottoms.
        • Pseudocheilinus octotaenia, eight-lined wrasse, eightstripe wrasse (nikiniki)
        • Sethojulis bandanensis, red-shoulder wrasse. [HF] Initial Phase.
        • Thalassoma hardwicke, sixbar wrasse.
        • Thalassoma lutescens, sunset wrasse. 25cm.  Initial Phase. [HF] Pink head with green bands, bluish-green forebody and green rear, yellow-green lunate tail. Yellow pectoral fin with blue outer edge.
        • Thalassoma purpureum, surge wrasse. 43cm. Initial Phase [HF] Green to blue head and body with pink bands on head and pink stripes on body. Old TP may lose stripes. In shallow water.
        • Thalassoma quinquevittatum, five-striped surge wrasse (meai)
        • Thalassoma sp., grey wrasse (meai tea – meai)
        • Thalassoma sp., saddleback wrasse (ulukupu).
        • Labroides sp., cleaner wrasse (meai moana – meai)
    • Scaridae – parrotfishes:swimming with breast fins, like wrasses but eating coral with parrot beaks. Many species.
        • Calotomis carolinus, star-eyed parrotfish. Blue-green with black spots and orange-pink bands radiating from eye. Large to 50cm. The photo shows this fish sleeping.
        • Chlorurus microrhinus, steephead parrotfish.
        • Scarus forsteni, Forsten’s parrotfish.
        • Scarus frenatus, bridled parrotfish.
        • Scarus ghobban, blue-barred parrotfish, five-banded parrotfish (paholo)
        • Scarus rubroviolaceus, red-lip or ember parrotfish. Large to 70cm. Variable in colour through its life cycle with darker band on upper lip and double bands on chin. Lunate tail with stripes. Closeup. variation [HF],
        • Scarus oviceps, egghead or darkcapped parrotfish. 31cm. [HF] Blue-green with narrow pink scale margins. Lime green and dark blue pectoral fin. Upper head and forebody a darker shade of purple. Solitary. Initial phase is whitish-yellow with a dark head cap.
        • Unidentified parrotfishes: parrot1, parrot2, parrot3,
    • Odacidae – butter fishes, cales & weed whitings: elongate to very elongate bodies like wrasses with soft long fins. Mostly plant eaters. butterfish,
    • Bovichthyidae – thornfishes: slender with large close-set dorsally placed eyes and two backfins. First is spinous and short based, the second soft and long based. thornfish
    • Nototheniidae – icefishes, Antarctic cods: Maori chief, black cod, small-scaled notothenid
    • Trichonotidae – sand divers:
    • Uranoscopidae – armoured stargazers: a tapering body and large head with mouth placed above and close to two small stalked eyes. First spine of back fin can be poisonous. Stargazers burrow into the sand leaving only their eyes exposed. Prey is caught by a sudden upward thrust and strong suction. giant stargazer, spotted stargazer, brown stargazer,
    • Leptoscopidae – stargazers: estuarine stargazer, sand stargazer
    • Pinguipedidae- grubfishes, weevers, sandperches:slender tapering bodies without swimbladders. Front of dorsal fin short with few hard spines. Eyes high and bulging. Mouth low placed and large. Most are predators. blue cod, redbanded weever
    • Creediidae – sand divers: sand diver, long-finned sand diver
    • Pholidichthyidae – convict blennies:
    • Trypterygiidae – triplefins:
    • Clinidae – weedfishes: crested weedfish, orange clinid
    • Blenniidae – blennies:slime fishes without scales, with one long back fin and no swimbladder.
        • Istiblennius bellus, beautiful rockskipper. 15cm. Charcoal grey with alternatinglight and dark bars. Large sail-like skin flap on head. 2 unbranched cirri (antennas). 2, 3,
        • Istiblennius edentulus, rippled rockskipper (lakua hopokiu – lakua). Small 17cm slimefish with about 6 paired unaligned bars. Unbranched cirri above eye. Male has skin flap resembling a first dorsal fin. These fish live at the sea’s surface in shallow pools and skip their way over the rock face, also able to skip on water. They do so by folding their bodies in a V shape, and skipping sideways.  photo1.
        • unidentified blennies: blenny1,
    • Eleotrididae – sleepers, bullies: Grahams gudgeon, Cran’s bully, upland bully, common bully, blue gilled bully, redfin bully
    • Callionymidae – dragonets: elongate tapering bodies without scales or swimbladder, and very showy. Eyes placed high on head and mouth is small but greatly extendable down and outward. Large showy fins.
    • Gobiidae – gobies: elongate small fishes with two backfins and no swim bladder, often living in sand burrows. Ventral fins joined into a single cup-shaped fin.
    • Ptereleotridae – dartfishes. Little elongate fishes with two-part dorsal fins, long anal fins and small upturned mouths. Darting in and out of burrows in the sand.
        • Nemateleotris magnifica, red fire goby or fire dartfish. 8cm. Living paired together is a sandy hole and hovering nearby. White front with long first dorsal fin, orange rear half.
    • Microdesmidae – dart gobies: long tubular and slender and small head. Often occurring in large schools above reefs when feeding, yet lacking a swimbladder.
    • Tripterygiidae – threefins, triplefins: usually small to very small fishes with three dorsal fins, the first of which is hard spined. Long anal fins. No swimbladders. Usually feeding on small invertebrates.
    • Clinidae – weedfishes & snake blennies: well camouflaged and highly variable in shape and colour, looking like the weeds they live on and in between. Many live upside down.
    • Siganidae – rabbitfishes: looking and behaving much like surgeonfishes, but not having a spike on their tail stocks.
    • Zanclidae – moorish idol:have long wimple like backfin filament on flat round bodies. Pig like snout and concave head. Jaws have long bristle-like teeth covered by fleshy lips.
        • Zanclus cornutus, moorish idol. A spectacular black-white-yellow baded fish with a dark band over its eyes and a long banner as first dorsal fin. Has a narrow snout. Small group.
    • Acanthuridae – surgeonfishes & unicornfishes:plant eaters of the reef. Sideways compressed with a sharp spike on their tail stocks. Many species, many colours. Surgeonfishes are also called tangs after their sharp tang (=spine) on their tails. Also includes sailfin tangs, unicornfishes and bristletooths.
        • Acanthurus achilles, Achilles tang (humu kolala – humu, kolala). 20cm. Dark to navy blue with large orange teardrop on rear body, white band on gill cover and white bands on edges of fins, orange band on tail fin. Solitary.
        • Acanthurus dussumieri, eyestripe surgeonfish (humu tea – humu). Greyish-blueish body with fine blue horizontal patterns, yellow fins, blue tail with fine spots and yellow stripe through eye.
        • Acanthurus guttatus, white spotted surf tang (hapi). A medium sized (to 30cm) fish with brown/grey colour and vertical white/grey bands. Numerous round spots on rear of boedy. Tail white/black banded by night or yellow/black by day. Yellow bellyfins. Usually occurs in large groups but sleeps alone. Schooling, sleeping,
        • Acanthurus lineatus, lined or striped surgeonfish.38cm. One of the most spectacular fish of the reef. Horizontal yellow/blue/black lines, orange hip fins. Feeds on algal scum and defends a small territory.
        • Acanthurus nigricans, velvet surgeonfish.21cm. Dark blue-black with white tail and yellow detail lines.
        • Acanthurus nigrofuscus, brown tang. 21cm. Brown with numerous orange spots on the head. Black spot on rear base of dorsal and anal fins. Can be olive-coloured. Forms large schools, grazing algae. [HF]
        • Acanthurus nigros, bluelined surgeonfish. [HF]
        • Acanthurus triostegus, convict tang. Perhaps the most common reef grazer. Often in large groups on shallow reefs. Small fish (to 25cm) with pale lemon colour and 6 narrow black bands as on a convict’s uniform.
        • Acanthurus pyroferus, mimic surgeonfish. 25cm. [HF] Brown, curvin black band from snout to top gill cover, orange patch above pectoral fin base, yellow tail margin and pectoral. Solitary.
        • Acathurus xanthopterus, yellowfin surgeonfish (meito)
        • Ctenochaetus striatus, fine-lined bristletooth. Olive green with fine horizontal lines.
        • Zebrasoma veliferum, Pacific sailfin tang (meito ago – meito). 40cm. Long sail fins (veils). Body with 6 alternating dark/light bands, beautifully patterned. Tail white to yellowish to brown without spots. Purple tail stock.
        • Naso caesius, grey unicornfish. Grey to brownish grey, able to change colour and patches on body. No horn and no dark margin on gill cover. large, to 60cm.
        • Naso hexacanthus, blue-spine unicornfish. A large (to 70cm) elongate surgeonfish whose unicorn is not very visible. Males change colour to white blue at will. Lives along drop-offs, feeding on plankton. Blue tail.
        • Naso unicornis, longsnouted unicornfish, bluespine unicornfish (humu tea). 70cm. [HF] Grey to olive with short horn and tail thread. Solitary.
        • Naso lituratus, orange spine unicornfish, smooth-headed unicornfish (humu kai niu – humu). Large (to 30cm) brownish grey body with yellow nape, orange tail spines and anal fin. Black band over back with black/grey back fin. Yellow fringe on tail. Yellow/black pattern around eyes and snout.
        • Unidentified surgeonfishes: tang1, tang2, tang3,
    • Gemphylidae – snake mackerels: barracouta, black barracouta, gemfish, oilfish
    • Trichiuridae – cutlass fishes: frostfish
    • Sphyraenidae – barracudas:pike barracuda, snook
        • Sphyraena forsteri, Forster’s sea pike (koho).
        • Sphyraena genie, darkfinned baracuda (utu).
        • Sphyraena barracuda, great barracuda (utu, kokuo, koho utu – koto, kuokuo).
        • Prometichthys prometheus, snake mackerel (kalapipi, matimati)
    • Scombridae – tunas and mackerels:blue mackerel, skipjack tuna, albacore tuna, yellowfin tuna, southern bluefin tuna, bigeye tuna, frigate tuna, slender tuna, Australian bonito, butterfly tuna
        • Katsuwonus pelamis, skipjack tuna (takua).
        • Thunnus albacares, yellowfin tuna (vahakula).
        • Thunnus alalunga, albacore (vahaleleva – vaha)
        • Thunnus obesus, big-eyed tuna (hakua)
        • Acanthosybium solandri, wahoo (paala).
        • Gymnosarda unicolor, dogtooth tuna (valu).
    • Luvaridae – louvars: louvar
    • Xiphiidae – swordfishes: broadbill swordfish,
    • Istiophoridae – billfishes:striped marlin, shortbill spearfish, blue marlin, black marlin, sailfish
        • Istiophorus platypterus, sailfish (haku piu – haku),
        • sword fish (haku la – haku), marlin (haku tagata –  haku)
    • Centrolophidae – warehous: common warehou, silver warehou, white warehou, blue-nose warehou, rudderfish, ragfish
  • Pleuronectiformes – Flatfishes
    • Bothidae – lefteyed flounders:a small family of unusual flounders with their eyes on their left sides. Brestfin used as rudder. Changes colour rapidly.
        • Bothus mancus, peacock flounder (ali). Solitary on sandy bottoms or rocky surfaces. Grey to brown with blue spots and circles. Lower eye in front of upper eye. Eyes widely spaced, lower eye in front of upper eye. Changes colour. Can grow large to 80cm.
    • Parlichthydae – large-tooth flounders: ventral fins short-based, clearly separate from long anal fin. Tailfin slightly pointed or rounded, radiating from a narrow base. Eyes on the left side wich is pigmented. Underside usually not pigmented.
    • Pleuronectidae – right-eye flounders: both eyes on the pigmented right side and underside unpigmented. Eyes small and close together, directly above each other. Fins entirely soft-rayed and tailfin straight. yellow-belly flounder, sand flounder, greenback flounder, black flounder, brill, turbot, lemon sole, NZ sole, spotted flounder
    • Soleidae – true soles: both eyes on the pigmented right side and left underside unpigmented. Head and eyes small and body shape oval almost without discontinuity between fins.
  • Tetraodontiformes –
    • Balistidae – triggerfishes:swimming with dorsal and anal fins. First dorsal spine lockable in upright position by second spine. Small breast fins, no hip fins.
        • Balistoides conspicillum, clown triggerfish. 50cm. Dark to black with white circles on belly. Yellow lips and other markings.
        • Balistoides viridescens, giant or Titan triggerfish. 75cm. [HF] The largest triggerfish on the reef, usually solitary and shy. Colours changeable from blue to yellow to pink. Dark mustache band.
        • Balistapus undulatus, orange-lined triggerfish (humu). A large (30cm) triggerfish, green with orange lines.
        • Melichthys vidua, pinktail triggerfish.
        • Rhinecanthus rectangulus, rectangular or wedgetail triggerfish. 25cm. [HF] Light brown snout and back; white below. Black band through eye and lower body to tail. Distinct yellow wedge mark from mid body to tail.
        • Sufflamen bursa, boomerang/scythe triggerfish, (humu). 24cm. Greyish with dark tail and two yellow bands behind eye and white line on belly.
    • Monacanthidae – filefishes:leatherjackets, swimming like triggerfishes. Also have one lockable dorsal spike.
        • Pervagor pilosoma, filefish (humu kotoku – humu)
    • Ostraciidae – boxfishes & cowfishes:Looking like pufferfishes but have rigid bodies.
        • Ostracion meleagris, spotted boxfish
    • Tetraodontidae – pufferfishes:soft inflatable bodies with soft fins and a small beak-like mouth with fused teeth. Paddles with breast, back and anal fins. toados, pufferfishes, without spines.
        • Arothron nigropunctatus, black-spotted puffer (tete). 33cm. A small common pufferfish with variable colours from brown to yellow and camel but always with small variable black spots. Photo2,
        • Arothron meleagris, guineafowl puffer. 50cm. Brown-black, covered in small white dots. Solitary, feeding mainly on live tips of corals. Can be all yellow.
        • Canthigaster amboinensis, Ambon puffer (tete). 14cm. Blue lines radiating from eye and blue-ringed white spots on body.
        • Canthigaster solandri, solander’s toby, spotted toby. 10cm. Brown, covered with white to blue to green spots and similar stripes on snout and back. eye spot on dorsal fin base. Solitary, feeding mainly on algae, corals and invertebrates.
    • Diodontidae – porcupine fishes:soft inflatable bodies with small spines all over. Large eyes and small gill opening which can serve jet propulsion when deflating. porcupine fish
        • Diodon liturosus, masked porcupine fish, commando porcupine fish (toutu). Large (50cm) with small spines and variablee marking like a commando’s military fatigues.
        • Diodon hystrix, common porcupinefish. A large (to 71cm) pufferfish, white below and yellow to olive brown on top, often with black and yellow patches and numerous small spots. Many short movable spines. Mostly solitary in calm waters. [HF]
    • Molidae – sunfishes:ocean sunfish
        • Mola mola, ocean sunfish. 300cm. Broad oval body with long dorsal and anal fins, with which it swims, and no tail but body flattens towards rear. Often swims near the surface.
  • Agnatha – Jawless fishes
  • Chondrichthyes – Cartilaginous fishes
  • Osteichthyes – Bony fishes